The Chinese Central Bank has announced significant regulatory change to the operation of online payments, widely affecting service providers and their millions of users in China.
In 2015, the size of China’s third party mobile payments market reached RMB 9.31 trillion, up 57.3 percent from 2014. Analysts expect that the industry will continue to grow at a fast rate in the coming years, reaching RMB 52.11 trillion by 2018. Mobile payments have become an extremely useful tool for companies to optimize in their China market strategy. Here, we examine the two largest third party online payment platforms used in the country: Alipay and WeChat.
In China, foreigners are only allowed to work after they obtain an official work permit and residence permit. Failing to do so will result in a fine of up to RMB 20,000. Here, we present a case study that illustrates the risks of hiring a foreign worker without providing a work permit in China.
A myriad of factors have contributed to a rise in need for elderly care services in China. The Middle Kingdom’s gender imbalance, low birth rate and average increase in life expectancy, combined with a series of family planning regulations, have created a rapidly aging population. Data provided by the National Statistics Bureau show that China’s over 60 population – the age at which it classifies an elderly person – reached 222 million in 2015, accounting for 16.1 percent of the overall population. This rate is now predicted to grow by three percent year on year, resulting in the proportion of elderly citizens exceeding that of those aged 14 and under by 2030, and one in three people in China being aged over 65 by 2050.
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi marked its two year anniversary on May 26 of this year. Given its overwhelming mandate in the 2014 general elections, the Modi government has been held to a high standard. A bounty of electoral promises has also resulted in big expectations, particularly, in the domain of economic and institutional reform, infrastructural growth, business competitiveness, and foreign policy.
In an ongoing effort to increase transparency by multinational enterprises (MNEs), India joined Canada, Iceland, Israel, New Zealand and the People’s Republic of China in becoming the 39th signatory to the OECD ‘s Multilateral Competent Authority agreement for the automatic exchange of Country-by-Country reports (CbC MCAA).
The Country-by-Country Reporting Agreement was conceptualized in 2013, when the OECD and G20 countries adopted the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Action Plan (BEPS). BEPS acknowledges that improving transparency for tax administrations by giving them adequate information to assess high-level transfer pricing is crucial for tackling the problems of tax base erosion and profit-shifting. In response, the September 2014 Report on Country-by-Country reporting provides a template for MNEs to file an annual report for each tax jurisdiction in which they do business. This report is called the Country-by-Country Report.
In 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) was officially fully established. In some ways similar to the economic unity of the EU, the broad aims of the AEC are to develop (1) a single market and production base, (2) a region of more equitable economic development, and (3) a globally integrated economic region. To achieve these, trade barriers will be removed or reduced and standards across a number of sectors (i.e. cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, and medical devices) will be harmonized.
Recently implemented, an updated version of Vietnamese criminal code raises penalties for illegal termination of employees. Effective from July 01 2016, Code No. 100/2015/QH13 lays out punishments, including serious fines and even jail time, for those found to be terminating or coercing the termination of employees illegally.
In order to reduce exposure to non-compliance, companies should be aware of how updates differ from previous legislation, in what instances non-compliance can be triggered, and the penalties and liability that are established and maintained under updated guidance.
As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia is among the most important producers of aquaculture globally. In 2001, Indonesia ranked fourth in aquaculture output and has since increased its fishery exports to US $4 billion in 2015. Though Indonesia’s aquaculture industry has begun to make strides, it is still far from realizing its full potential.
In an effort to harness its comparative advantages, the Indonesian government has made monetary commitments to the sustainability of the industry and is working to relax regulations surrounding foreign investment. Upon their election in 2014, both President Joko Widodo and Susi Pudjiastuti, the Minister of Maritime and Fisheries, have been working to establish strategies to promote and expand Indonesia’s fisheries.
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COVID-19 Vaccine Roll Outs in ASEAN Live Updates by Country
Thailand is currently expecting vaccines to be delivered in mid-2021. The doses would cover 13 million people in a population of about 69 million. Thailand’s National Vaccine Institute signed a non-refundable advance market commitment contract worth 2.38 billion baht (US$79 million) with AstraZeneca to reserve the supplies
ASEAN coronavirus Covid-19 live updates by country
Brunei has joined the global Covax scheme and is expecting to have the COVID-19 vaccine in Q1 2021, having sourced enough supplies to cover 50% of the population. Discussions are on-going with other suppliers.
- Brunei recorded one new case on May 8, bringing the total to 330 cases amid three deaths.
- Brunei saw one new case on May 7, taking the total to 229 cases amid three deaths.
- Brunei recorded one new case on May 4, taking the total to 228 amid three deaths.
Cambodia is expected to import vaccines from both China and Russia. China’s vaccines are still undergoing clinical trials while Russia has already commenced production. Australia has offered financial support to aid vaccine coverage in several southeast Asia countries including Cambodia.
- Cambodia recorded 538 new cases on May 8, bringing the total to 18,717 cases amid 114 deaths.
- Cambodia recorded 558 new cases on May 7, taking the total to 18,179 cases and 114 deaths.
- Cambodia reported 650 new cases and four deaths on May 6, bringing the tallies to 17,621 cases and 114 deaths.
Indonesia has commenced vaccinations with just over nine million doses being given to front line workers from last month. China’s Sinovac is in discussions with Indonesia to provide supplies, however, the Government faces difficulties with a large population of 268 million and price sensitivity at Sinovac’s estimated costs at 200,000 rupiah (US$20) a dose.
Indonesia’s Health Ministry’s Disease Control and Prevention Director-General Achmad Yurianto said that vaccinations would only be provided to citizens aged 18-59. The vaccine has also been required to pass halal certification prior to use and it is uncertain how the country can source enough vaccines to reach a sizeable part of its population. Australia has stated it will also provide financial support to solve these issues.
- Indonesia recorded 6,130 new cases and 179 deaths on May 8, bringing the totals to 1,709,762 cases and 46,842 deaths.
- Indonesia saw 6,327 new cases and 167 deaths on May 7, bringing the tallies to 1,703,632 cases and 46,663 deaths.
- Indonesia reported 5,647 new cases and 147 deaths on May 6, bringing the totals to 1,697,305 cases and 46,496 deaths.
Laos has been trialing the Russian Sputnik V vaccine and is also in discussions with China about acquiring supplies.
- Laos recorded 28 new cases on May 8, bringing the total to 1,233.
- Laos saw 28 new cases on May 7, taking the total to 1,205.
- Laos saw 105 new cases on May 6, taking the total to 1,177.
Malaysia is to provide vaccines free of charge to its nationals, but foreigners will need to pay for the treatment, according to the Malaysian Minister of Health, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, who has signed a deal with Pfizer for 12.8 million doses.
These will be administered in two stages of 6.4 million people each, with the program to commence in Q1 2021. The country aims to inoculate between 80-100% of its citizens.
- Malaysia reported 4,519 new cases and 25 deaths on May 8, taking the tallies to 436,944 cases and 1,657 deaths.
- Malaysia saw 4,498 new cases and 22 deaths on May 7, bringing the tallies to 432,425 cases and 1,632 deaths.
- Malaysia recorded 3,551 new cases and 19 deaths on May 6, taking the totals to 427,927 cases and 1,610 deaths.
Myanmar is seeking assistance from the Gavi and Covax programs to acquire vaccines, while Australia is also providing financial relief. At present, the Government aims to treat 20 percent of the ‘most at risk’ in the country with vaccines. The Government is struggling with finances and logistics and is also under US sanctions, while cases are surging. The Government has banned the celebration of Christmas and other seasonal celebrations.
- Myanmar recorded 31 new cases on May 8, taking the total to 142,934 amid 3,210 deaths.
- Myanmar saw 29 new cases on May 7, taking the total to 142,903 amid 3,210 deaths.
- Myanmar recorded 16 new cases and one death on May 5, bringing the total to 142,874 amid 3,210 deaths.
The Philippines aims to commence vaccinations from June 2021 and expects to inoculate about 25 million people (about 25 percent of its population) over the course of the year. The country has been badly affected by the virus and has the second-highest rate in Southeast Asia.
The business community has reacted, more than 30 local companies signed an agreement to purchase at least 2.6 million vaccine doses from AstraZeneca in the country’s first such deal to secure coronavirus vaccines, ten days ago. They plan to donate a large part of the doses to the government for its planned vaccination program and use the rest to inoculate their employees.
- The country saw 6,979 new cases and 170 deaths on May 8, taking the totals to 1,094,849 cases and 18,269 deaths.
- The Philippines reported 7,733 new cases and 108 deaths on May 7, bringing the tallies to 1,087,885 cases and 18,099 deaths.
- The Philippines saw 6,637 new cases and 191 deaths on May 6, bringing the totals to 1,080,172 cases and 17,991 deaths.
Singapore has been working on producing its own ‘Lunar’ vaccine, in a joint venture between the US company Arcturus together with the Duke-NUS medical school. It is a single dose, mRNA shot, developed from genetically engineering COVID-19 genes into an otherwise harmless virus. This technique is marginally safer than other vaccines which rely on dead Covid-19 material to provoke an immune response. The vaccine is expected to be available from Q1 2021. High-risk personnel will receive the vaccine first in a process to be determined by the government.
- Singapore recorded 20 new cases on May 8, taking the total to 61,331 cases amid 31 deaths.
- Singapore saw 25 new cases on May 7, taking the total to 61,311 cases amid 31 deaths.
- Singapore saw 18 new cases on May 6, bringing the total to 61,286 cases amid 31 deaths.
Thailand is currently expecting vaccines to be delivered in mid-2021. The doses would cover 13 million people in a population of about 69 million.
Thailand’s National Vaccine Institute signed a non-refundable advance market commitment contract worth 2.38 billion baht (US$79 million) with AstraZeneca to reserve the supplies. Discussions are also on-going with Oxford University in the UK to secure a vaccine that could be available in Q1 if trials are completed in time.
- Thailand reported 2,419 new cases and 19 deaths on May 8, taking the tallies to 81,274 cases and 382 deaths.
- Thailand recorded 2,044 new cases and 27 deaths on May 7, taking the totals to 78,855 cases and 363 deaths.
- Thailand reported 1,911 new cases and 18 deaths on May 6, taking the tallies to 76,811 cases and 336 deaths.
Vietnam’s National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), a division of Vietnam’s Ministry of Health, has signed an agreement with Medigen Vaccine, a Taipei, Taiwan-based vaccine company to secure the supply of 3 million to 10 million COVID-19 vaccine doses in 2021. Medigen is currently conducting Phase II studies of the vaccine, co-developed with the USA’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), in Taiwan and Vietnam with a view to a Q1 2021 rollout.
Vietnam is also working on producing its own vaccine, with the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) in Nha Trang City, partnering with New York City-based Icahn School of Medicine and the global health non-profit organization PATH. Phase 1 trials are already underway in Vietnam, while Phases 2 & 3 will be conducted at the beginning of 2021. The institute plans to submit documents for approval to the health ministry as early as April next year and claims to be capable of producing 30 million doses a year, expecting that a national vaccine could be distributed to the general population in October 2021.
- Vietnam saw 15 new cases on May 8, taking the total to 3,152 cases amid 35 deaths.
- As of May 7, 2021, Vietnam’s Ministry of Health confirmed a total of 3,091 cases of COVID-19. However, 2,560 of the affected patients have recovered and been discharged from hospitals. Vietnam has also recorded 35 deaths due to the pandemic. The latest community transmission cases have been reported from Hanoi, Vinh Phuc, Thai Binh, Bac Ninh, and Da Nang among others. 16 local cases are linked to the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases in Hanoi’s Dong Anh district.
- As of May 6, 2021, Vietnam’s Ministry of Health confirmed a total of 3,030 cases of COVID-19. However, 2,560 of the affected patients have recovered and been discharged from hospitals. Vietnam has also recorded 35 deaths due to the pandemic. The latest community transmission cases have been reported from Hanoi’s outskirts district of Dong Anh.
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